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A Comprehensive Look at What is ADHD

Week 7 of the series, and this week we are taking a closer look at ADHD

Imagine a world where life is like playing a never-ending game of whack-a-mole. Every time you try to focus on one thing, a thousand other thoughts pop up like pesky moles, demanding your attention. It's like your mind is a circus, with a thousand different performers all vying for the spotlight at the same time. Simple tasks like doing laundry or checking email can feel like trying to untangle a giant knot while blindfolded. But that's not even the worst part. Impulsivity can often lead to hasty decisions that you later regret, like hitting the snooze button for the tenth time or blurting out something inappropriate in a meeting. And even though you know you need to stay on top of deadlines and manage your time better, it feels like you're constantly swimming upstream against a raging current. In short, living with ADHD is like being in a constant battle with your own brain. It's frustrating, exhausting, and can sometimes feel like an insurmountable challenge. But for those who learn to embrace the chaos, it can also be a source of creativity, innovation, and unique perspective.

What is ADHD?

ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It's a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the brain's executive functions, such as attention, focus, and impulse control. People with ADHD may experience symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, which can lead to difficulties in daily life. These difficulties may include struggles with completing tasks, staying organized, and managing time effectively. ADHD can be diagnosed in both children and adults, and while there is no cure for ADHD, treatment options such as therapy and medication can help manage the symptoms.

How common is ADHD?

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that 3-4% of adults worldwide have ADHD, while the prevalence in children is higher, ranging from 5-7%. However, the rates of diagnosis and treatment vary widely across different countries and cultures. In some countries, ADHD is not widely recognized as a legitimate disorder, and therefore, people with ADHD may not receive the necessary support and treatment. Conversely, in other countries, ADHD may be over-diagnosed and overtreated. Overall, ADHD is a global health concern that impacts people from all walks of life, regardless of their culture or background.

What are the symptoms of ADHD?

The symptoms of ADHD can be categorized into three main types: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Here are some common symptoms for each type:


  • Difficulty sustaining attention on tasks or activities

  • Easily distracted by external stimuli

  • Forgetfulness or losing things necessary for tasks or activities

  • Difficulty organizing tasks or activities

  • Avoiding or disliking tasks that require sustained mental effort

  • Difficulty following through on instructions or completing tasks


  • Fidgeting or squirming in one's seat

  • Difficulty staying seated or remaining still for extended periods

  • Running or climbing excessively, especially in inappropriate situations

  • Talking excessively or blurting out answers before the question is completed

  • Difficulty engaging in activities quietly

  • Often "on the go" or acting as if "driven by a motor"


  • Acting without thinking of the consequences

  • Interrupting or intruding on others

  • Difficulty waiting one's turn

  • Making decisions impulsively without fully considering the outcome

  • Difficulty delaying gratification or waiting for rewards

It's important to note that everyone may experience some of these symptoms from time to time, but for someone with ADHD, these symptoms are more severe and frequent, and they interfere with daily life activities. A diagnosis of ADHD requires the presence of multiple symptoms that persist over time and affect multiple areas of a person's life.

What causes ADHD?

The exact causes of ADHD are not yet fully understood, but research suggests that it is likely due to a combination of genetic, neurological, and environmental factors. Here are some possible causes of ADHD:

  1. Genetics: ADHD tends to run in families, which suggests that there may be a genetic component to the disorder. Studies have found that genes related to the regulation of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin may play a role.

  2. Brain anatomy and function: Studies have shown that people with ADHD tend to have differences in the size, structure, and activity of certain areas of the brain that are involved in attention and impulse control.

  3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins such as lead or alcohol during pregnancy or early childhood may increase the risk of developing ADHD. Other factors such as low birth weight, premature birth, and maternal stress during pregnancy have also been linked to ADHD.

  4. Other medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, and learning disabilities may mimic or worsen ADHD symptoms.

It's important to note that ADHD is a complex disorder, and it is likely caused by a combination of these and other factors.

How is ADHD diagnosed?

ADHD is typically diagnosed by a healthcare professional, such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, or primary care provider. Here's what the diagnosis process usually looks like:

  1. Clinical interview: The healthcare provider will likely start by conducting a clinical interview with the individual and their family members or caregivers to gather information about their symptoms and daily life functioning.

  2. Diagnostic criteria: The healthcare provider will use criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to determine whether the individual meets the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.

  3. Rating scales: The healthcare provider may also use rating scales such as the ADHD Rating Scale or the Conners' Rating Scales to gather more information about the individual's symptoms and their impact on daily life.

  4. Medical exam: The healthcare provider may also conduct a medical exam to rule out other medical conditions that may be causing or worsening the symptoms.

  5. Psychological testing: In some cases, the healthcare provider may conduct psychological testing to evaluate the individual's cognitive and academic functioning.

Overall, the diagnosis of ADHD involves a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's symptoms, medical history, and daily life functioning. A proper diagnosis is essential for effective treatment and management of the disorder. What treatments are available for ADHD?

here are several treatment options available for ADHD. The most effective treatment plan is usually based on an individual's specific symptoms and needs. Here are some common treatments for ADHD:

  1. Medications: Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamines are often prescribed to help reduce ADHD symptoms by increasing the levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain. Non-stimulant medications such as atomoxetine and guanfacine may also be prescribed in some cases.

  2. Behavioral therapy: Behavioral therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), can help individuals with ADHD develop new coping strategies and improve their organizational and time-management skills.

  3. Parent training and support: Parents of children with ADHD may benefit from training and support programs that teach them how to manage their child's behavior and improve their communication with their child.

  4. Education and accommodations: Providing educational accommodations such as extra time for exams or assignments, note-taking assistance, and preferential seating can help individuals with ADHD perform better in school or work settings.

  5. Lifestyle changes: Regular exercise, healthy eating habits, and good sleep hygiene can also help individuals with ADHD manage their symptoms.

It's important to note that the most effective treatment plan often involves a combination of different approaches tailored to the individual's specific needs. A healthcare professional can help determine the best treatment plan for each individual. ADHD can have a significant impact on an individual's life, affecting their academic, occupational, and social functioning. However, with proper diagnosis and treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms effectively and lead fulfilling lives. Treatment options such as medications, behavioral therapy, parent training and support, educational accommodations, and lifestyle changes can all help individuals with ADHD improve their daily life functioning. If you suspect that you or a loved one may have ADHD, it's important to seek help from a healthcare professional. With the right treatment plan, individuals with ADHD can achieve their full potential and thrive.

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